News and Events

The Sarcopenia Project: research into reducing the loss of muscle mass and strength due to ageing

In April, Dr Nigel Quadros and his associate Dr Kandiah Umapathysivam (Sivam) held an information session with Polio SA members about their proposed research on improving the lives of people who experience sarcopenia (the loss of muscle mass and strength due to ageing) as a result of an earlier polio infection.

Sarcopenia and polio survivors

Sarcopenia is characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength or function.

Due to nerve cell loss after acute polio viral infection, polio survivors live with sarcopenia at an earlier stage in life compared to the normal ageing population. Immobility-related underactivity is likely to be a major contributor to sarcopenia in polio survivors.

There is no reliable way to differentiate age-related sarcopenia from underactivity-related sarcopenia but both contribute to weakness, fatigue and loss of function.

Both types of sarcopenia may be improved through strengthening exercise and proper nutrition.

About the research project

The Sarcopenia Project aims to improve the lives of people who experience sarcopenia as a result of an earlier polio infection. The research will:

  • Use current screening tools to detect the prevalence of sarcopenia in people who had polio
  • Determine if specifically tailored exercises and nutrition and reduce the effects of sarcopenia and improved quality of life
  • Document results to form the basis of a larger study.

The researchers are currently recruiting people who have had a polio infection to participate in this study.

Participation is entirely voluntary and you are free to withdraw at any stage. The researchers would like to emphasise that the screening tools used to assess sarcopenia are non-invasive and pose no risk to you. All information will be obtained with questionnaires and simple body measurements and no blood tests or radiological investigations will be performed. All data gathered from you will remain strictly confidential and not appear in hospital records.

Participation in this research involves:

  1. Filling out the post-polio questionnaire
  2. Providing an update of any other medical conditions you may have
  3. Providing a list of your current medications
  4. Returning the above information with your contact details.

If you are interested in participating in this project or would like to learn more, please contact Polio SA on 0466 893 402 or email

Health and Wellness Retreat 2017: look after your body, mind and spirit

What are you doing to keep your body, mind and spirit healthy? Polio Australia’s upcoming Health and Wellness Retreat will allow you to zone out of your everyday and zone in to your body, mind and spirit with your fellow polio survivors and the wider post-polio community.

The seventh Health and Wellness Retreat is being held on Queensland’s beautiful Sunshine Coast from Thursday 26 to Sunday 29 October 2017. You can come alone or bring a partner or friend to experience this with you.

The knowledge gained during previous retreats has assisted participants to better manage their own condition. Participants have also shared their new knowledge with their health professionals, facilitating improved care for other patients presenting with the late effects of polio.

The heavily subsidised registration fees start at $350 per person and include three nights’ accommodation, all meals, workshops, clinical assessments, and activities.

So if you are ready for some summer sunshine and want to improve your wellbeing, now is the time to book your place! For more information, visit

Polio then and now

Source: Polio Australia’s Polio Oz News, March 2017 – Autumn edition

A passage in Philip Roth’s novel Nemesis describes the horror of catching polio in the US town of Newark in 1944, when outbreaks of the disease were common and each summer was spent in fear of infection.

“Finally the cataclysm began – the monstrous headache, the enfeebling exhaustion, the severe nausea, the raging fever, the unbearable muscle ache, followed in another forty-eight hours by the paralysis”, it says.

Polio, or poliomyelitis, has existed for millennia. There is ancient Egyptian art which depicts a victim of the disease with a frail, deformed limb, using a staff for support.

While the paralysing effects of polio have always been devastating, outbreaks of the disease were relatively rare in the West until the late 19th century, when major epidemics swept Europe and the US.

In Roth’s story, everyone knows what polio is but no one knows where it comes from or how it spreads, with everything from flies to fast food blamed for its rapid transmission.

In fact it is passed on through contact with faecal matter, by drinking contaminated water and eating food that has been touched by the unclean hands, and sometimes through coughs and sneezes.

Once infected, the virus invades the nervous system and begins to destroy nerve cells which control the muscles, especially in the legs. If someone is paralysed by polio, there is a five to 10 per cent chance they will die when the disease reaches their respiratory system. There is no cure.

“He was there for three weeks before he no longer needed catheterisation and enemas, and they moved him upstairs and began treatment with steamed woollen hot packs wrapped around his arms and legs, all of which were initially stricken,” writes Roth, of one character’s experience.

“He underwent four torturous sessions of the hot packs a day, together lasting as long as four to six hours. Fortunately his respiratory muscles hadn’t been affected, so he never had to be moved inside an iron lung to assist with his breathing, a prospect that he dreaded more than any other.”

The iron lung was invented in 1928 by American physiologists Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw. The huge ventilator, which left only the head visible, kept polio victims alive for a number of weeks while they recovered from the illness – but those left permanently paralysed could spend their whole lives encased in one.

Dawn Varma, a 20-year-old who was paralysed by polio when she was 10 weeks’ pregnant, even gave birth while she was in an iron lung. A photograph from 1959 shows Ms Varma, the wife of an Indian scientist, inside the ventilator with a nurse tending to her healthy newborn baby, called Dilip.

In 1952, Jonas Salk developed an injectable polio vaccine and in 1961 Albert Sabin pioneered the oral vaccine drops, which had the advantage of spreading immunity through communities. These vaccines were highly effective, and cases in the US fell from 35,000 in 1953 to 5,300 in 1957.

The new oral vaccine was approved for emergency use in Hull in 1961 when an epidemic hit the city, with parents taking their children to improvised immunisation centres in their thousands to be given sugar lumps with the vaccine.

The success of mass polio vaccination in the developed world led doctors and international humanitarian organisation Rotary International to consider its potential elsewhere.

John Sever, head of the infectious disease branch at the US National Institutes of Health and a Rotary member, in 1979 proposed the idea to the group’s president (Ed. Clem Renouf), who wanted to develop a new project for Rotary that would involve the entire organisation.

“He asked my opinion of what we could do, and I wrote him: ‘If a single vaccine were to be selected, I would recommend poliomyelitis.’ At the time, less than half the children in the world were receiving any vaccine,” Dr Sever told National Geographic. “At the time, there had just been the last cases of polio to occur in the United States, and smallpox had just been declared to be eradicated. So people felt it was possible, that we could aim to eradicate polio.”

He said soon afterwards, “the legislative body that represents all Rotarians voted that we would make immunisation for the eradication of polio our number one priority throughout the world.”

That same year, Dr Sever and several fellow Rotary members travelled to the Philippines, where with the support of the government and health industry, they immunised around six million children.

Soon, the virus had been eradicated across the Americas – a remarkable feat that led Rotary International and the World Health Organization to announce the goal of worldwide polio eradication in 1988.

Now the disease is only endemic in three countries, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria, and there were just 37 cases last year. Optimistic health workers and organisations such as Rotary International say 2017 could be the year in which the world sees the last case of polio.

Serious challenges, including violent attacks on vaccinators by Islamists, poor routine immunisation coverage, remain.

But one day taking children to the doctor for polio vaccination drops may be a distant memory, and the long list of famous polio survivors including Francis Ford Coppola, David Starkey and Mary Berry will fade into history.

The hope generated by this possibility is summed up in Roth’s novel when the protagonist listens to his grandmother reminisce about diseases of the past.

“His grandmother was remembering when whooping cough victims were required to wear armbands and how, before a vaccine was developed, the most dreaded disease in the city was diphtheria,” it says.

“She remembered getting one of the first smallpox vaccinations. The site of the injection had become seriously infected, and she had a large, uneven circle of scarred flesh on her upper right arm as a result. She pushed up the halfsleeve of her housedress and extended her arm to show it to everyone.”

Roth, P, 2011. Nemesis. International: Vintage. ISBN 9780307475008

How to exercise if you are living with post-polio syndrome – Part One

Source: This is an excerpt from an article by Stephen Pate, originally published by the NJN Network on 26 March 2017.

If you have post-polio syndrome, it’s vital to exercise moderately every second day to keep the muscles we have and avoid obesity, diabetes, stroke and heart disease.

Exercise also helps us accomplish more of those activities of daily living and can improve how we feel.

Why exercise?

While it seems obvious, many of us with post-polio syndrome face enough weakness, fatigue and pain every day to make exercise seem impossible. We’ve tried exercise before and many develop an attitude of learned helplessness.

Thus, we rely more and more on assistive aids like wheelchairs and scooters. Lack of physical activity contributes to weight gain, which makes things worse and we become even more deconditioned physically. It’s a negative spiral we need to fight against.

I’ll try to give you some practical suggestions that have worked for me, along with some that haven’t. And I’ll outline how I did recover some ability with the NuStep exercise machine. As a precaution, I waited until I had 2 years of experience with the NuStep before recommending it, notwithstanding most hospitals use it as standard rehab equipment.

Exercise is one of the standard post-polio syndrome treatments, along with rest, diet, energy conservation, environment adaptation. It’s also of the hardest things to do.

The Mayo Clinic sums up the exercise prescription like this:

“Physical therapy. Your doctor or therapist may prescribe exercises for you that strengthen your muscles without you experiencing muscle fatigue. These usually include less strenuous activities, such as swimming or water aerobics, that you perform every other day at a relaxed pace.

Exercising to maintain fitness is important, but be cautious in your exercise routine and daily activities. Avoid overusing your muscles and joints and attempting to exercise beyond the point of pain or fatigue. Otherwise you may need significant rest to regain your strength.”

So, the gist is get some exercise – maybe swimming or water aerobics – every second day, but don’t do too much or you’ll be in trouble.

I’ve had post-polio syndrome for 18 years and exercise is the bane of my existence. How do I get enough exercise without making things worse?

I used to hate exercise as part of the post-polio prescription. How can I exercise if I can’t walk, or walk very far? That question is part of the learned helplessness that can go with any disability.

Some medical professionals look at us on crutches or in wheelchairs and tell us to go easy. So, we assume the part of being helpless about our physical health. That’s deadly.

There is plenty of published evidence to show people with post-polio need and thrive on regular and moderate aerobic exercise. Strength training exercises for post-polio are not recommended as it may damage weakened muscles.

The principles of safe and effective exercise for people with post-polio syndrome are:

  1. Start gradually
  2. Moderate level aerobics
  3. At a moderate pace
  4. Every second day
  5. Supervision by a registered physiotherapist or kinesiologist with training and experience about post-polio syndrome
  6. Be careful

Start gradually

If you haven’t been exercising, start gradually. At one clinic, they wanted me to do 30 minutes on day one. Luckily, I was so weak I couldn’t comply. Everyone has a different starting point and capacity.

My physiatrist recommended exercising for three days in a row about 5–7 minutes, or until I felt tired. He said I would like feel tired sooner as each day passed, which was true. Then he said to average the time for three days and use the average as the time for each session.

He suggested adding one minute every week until I was at 30 minutes every second day. That seemed to work but later I developed problems with pain and added fatigue. A more cautious suggestion is to add one minute of exercise every 2 to 3 weeks. It’s not a race.

Moderate level

If an exercise machine has 10 levels of resistance, moderate is five. When you exercise with people we seeing sweating to stay fit at health spas and workout joints, they don’t have post-polio.

Trying to decide what is ‘moderate’ is the problem. Each person has different capabilities. Studies on what level people with post-polio syndrome can handle are generally short-term and inadequate and may not be a good guide for you.

Moderate pace

Again, it’s not a race and a moderate pace is all you need. For example, I’ve seen people do 170 steps per minute on the NuStep. I tried that and my physiotherapist slowed me down to 115 steps per minute at the most. Each type of exercise will have a moderate cadence that you can use. Start slow in any event, about one third of the maximum you expect to keep up. For 115 my starting point was 40 steps per minute. Each person will have a different moderate pace set by the physiotherapist.

Exercise every second day

Whatever exercise works for you, the recommendation is to exercise every second day, resting in between. Post-polio syndrome muscles and nerves need a rest. The exercise should be moderate, not strenuous. You don’t want to be sweating or out of breath at the end of your session, nor do you want muscle pain.

Getting exhausted is not recommended. Exercising past the point of pain can harm already weakened muscles. All the popular forms of exercise can damage post-polio syndrome nerves and muscles.

The every second day advice is not always recommended by professionals who are not experienced with post-polio syndrome patients. When the sports physiotherapist told me to exercise five times a week, I had to reply that post-polio syndrome patients are advised to take a day off between exercises. She looked it up in her book and agreed. (ACSM’s Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities)

I recommend you try to find a regular exercise that you can do at home during good and bad weather. Exercise clubs are great for some people but you may find the effort of going there, exercising and coming home is more than you can handle every second day.

Supervised by a physiotherapist or kinesiologist

These suggestions should be taken under the care and control of a physiotherapist who understands post-polio syndrome. Don’t do it on your own. If your physiotherapist is vague about post-polio syndrome, ask them to research it before making recommendations.

Post-polio syndrome exercise is not training for sports, the Olympics or muscle strengthening. Walk or wheelchair away from sports physiotherapists. They likely don’t understand post-polio and can get you in trouble. I did work with one who looked it up in the book of sports physiotherapy and learned how we are different. Before that she kept pushing me to do more.

Be careful

In the often-cited Kriz study, 10 post-polio syndrome patients exercised for 16-weeks at an intensity 70%-75% of potential heart rate. The post-polio syndrome patients kept the same intensity as the control group who were not disabled. No long-term pain was recorded. The results of the study were that 10 people had improved cardiovascular health.

What the study did not decide was if they could keep up that level of exertion over the long term. My experience has been that post-polio patients should be very cautious. I’ve had two instances where guided physiotherapy caused me nerve and muscle damage that took 3-6 months to recover. The first time I noticed pain was nine months after starting 30 minutes every second day. It can be discouraging to stop exercising because muscles are sore, but that can happen.

Part two of this article will be published in our next newsletter, or see the link above to read the full article.

Polio SA Subscription Renewal for 2017/18 Membership

To renew your Polio SA membership subscription for 2017/18, please fill out the Subscription Renewal Form.

Click here to view and download the Subscription Renewal Form.

The Subscription Renewal Form needs to be filled out and returned to either:

  Polio SA, 302 South Road Hilton SA 5033

Don’t forget to also forward your payment, and thank you for being part of Polio SA.

Annual General Meeting and committee nominations

Annual General Meeting

We would like to announce that the date of our Annual General Meeting has been set for:

When: 1.00 pm, Sunday 24 September 2017
Where: 302 South Road, Hilton

The order of the business at the meeting shall be:

  1. the consideration of the accounts,
  2. reports of the Committee,
  3. the appointment of committee members,
  4. any other business requiring consideration of the Association in general meeting.

After the AGM we will be holding a Q&A panel with guest speakers, followed by afternoon tea.

As this is your group, endeavouring to assist you, your attendance is encouraged.

Please bring a small plate of afternoon tea to share. Tea, coffee and drinks will be provided.

Committee nominations

We would really like to encourage more of our members to assist on the Committee, so please consider an offer of services.

Click here to view and download the Committee Nomination Form.

Nominations for committee positions must be lodged with the Secretary by 1 September 2017.

Polio in my life – a story by Terry Haighton

It was 1946 and the war was finally over. The family had moved from London to Essex and I attended the local primary school.

One day we were supplied with a form to take home for our parents to sign, it was to advise them that with the onset of polio, the whole school was to be vaccinated, and they were required to sign the application giving their permission. With the knowledge that in the past I always had a bad reaction to any form of injection, my mother was naturally concerned.

The following day a meeting was arranged with the headmaster. My mothers’ concerns were discussed with him, whereupon the headmaster suggested he contact the Health Department for further information to allay any fears my mother had. Fears were allayed when it was explained that all problems would be dealt with by the attending nursing staff.

The day arrived for the vaccinations and being rather wary, I hung back and ended up being the last student to be vaccinated. By sheer coincidence, it was at this time a fresh pack of vaccine was opened, but after the procedure nothing seemed to be amiss.

It was shortly after I arrived home that I started to have a bad headache, this combined with feeling ill, so straight away my mother suggested I prepare for bed. This was while she heated some milk and honey for me to drink after taking some aspirin for the headache. I was put to bed with these words from my mother, “sleep tight, everything will be fine in the morning,” how prophetic these words were.

Upon waking in the morning, the first thing I realised was that I could not move my left arm or left leg. In fact the whole left side of my body appeared to me, as a child, that it was asleep and numb. I screamed and my mother ran into the bedroom totally alarmed at what was happening.

The next couple of days were sheer panic. It involved many visits from our doctor, the school headmaster, followed by representatives from the health department. After numerous tests, my parents were advised that my body had reacted violently to the vaccine. I now had a form of infantile paralysis, as it was called at that time, or more formally known as polio. As the war had only recently ended, there was not the equipment available that I needed.

I ended up being home schooled for nearly a year, thanks to my mother who organised it all. I also had home therapy from a physiotherapist from Monday to Friday. Having always been a very active child in sports and dancing, I was more than willing to cover all the exercises given to me by my physiotherapist.

My mother refused hospital treatments, always using natural methods of healing where possible. And so it was that massage became the normal treatment for me, which was administered by my mother and the physiotherapist she employed.

This was not unusual in my family, with five living children, as more than once treatment by my mother had superseded anything the doctor had prescribed. For example, mum would treat serious chest coughs with snake venom on a cube of sugar, this never failed.

When two of my brothers’ went down with the measles, it was the brother treated at home who recovered exceptionally well, while the brother who was taken to hospital, arrived home with damaged eye sight, despite my mothers’ objections to where and how he was being treated. The doctor and health authorities, were equally amazed at my recovery in how, over a period of twelve months, I managed to get back on my feet.

Unfortunately with polio there is never a 100% success in recovery. The residual for me was a weakness on my left side, creating a walk that could be easily recognised by colleagues. While at work when walking along a corridor, it was the hard and soft fall of my feet which announced my arrival.

With my own determination and strength of mind, I have managed to lead a very active school and work life. Marriage in 1957 produced three children, this was a pure miracle in itself, considering that after my accident as a child, while having a pillow fight with my sister, I jumped off the bed, but not far enough, as I came down on top of the decorative brass balls, which in turn smashed through to my womb.

I was once again paralysed from the waist down. This meant a session for several months in a borrowed pram, while I was recuperating. There were no wheelchairs available at that time, with the war having just recently come to an end.

The prognosis from the family doctor being, “this young lady will never be able to carry a child, her injuries are too severe.” That was later proved wrong by the birth of my three children.

Although each birth was traumatic, the first in fact totally draining me and causing several problems, I managed to overcome each set back.

When pregnant with my second child, I was advised that the foetus had died in the womb, therefore I was not accepted for treatment in the antenatal clinic and treated as an outpatient in the hospital. I was then given the choice of having the foetus aborted at 5 or 7 months, this timing being the best for the delivery.

My mother, who came with me to see Miss Calvely, my gynaecologist, was totally shocked at this suggestion. I must say so was I. I then insisted that I go through full time with the pregnancy feeling that while the child was I my womb, it was safe. I was then advised that my baby would be born black having deteriorated after death within the womb.

At the end of my pregnancy term, my daughter was delivered safely, only weighing 3 lb 4 oz., but alive and well. My third child, a son, was born with the cord around his neck, which caused a lot of concern. I also haemorrhaged badly and became extremely ill.

Consequently I now have three heart problems, a hole in the heart, a heart murmur, together with a rapid heart beat, not as my heart specialist quoted, having a four piece quartet, but a full orchestra playing.

As a consequence, having polio as a child, has remained and still is a problem in my life. Only my own discipline with exercise and healthy eating has been the one positive.

It is by trial and error that certain medications can be of assistance, having many allergies I have to ensure that anything new is thoroughly checked before I am able to use it. One medication being extremely useful is magnesium for leg cramps.

I do consider myself lucky in having a forward thinking mother, for without her everything would have been a lot harder to accept.

Thank you to my mum, for all of your love and hard work.

Reaching more people with post-polio

The Polio SA committee are always seeking to expand our reach and improve our member services.

Over the past two years we have worked with Community Business Bureau – a social enterprise dedicated to building the capacity and sustainability of not for profit organisations. Our focus to date has been on improving our member communications by updating our website, starting an email newsletter and Facebook page, and continuing production of this newsletter.

With these foundations in place, it’s now time to get our message out to a wider audience. Doing so will allow more South Australians with post-polio to access the benefits of a Polio SA membership.

Community Business Bureau will continue to support us over the next year, including:

  • A campaign to promote Polio SA to health professionals
  • Further enhancing our website – including addition of an online signup form for membership
  • A plan to reach and engage with multicultural communities
  • Ongoing production of this quarterly newsletter
  • Promoting events and news to members via our Facebook page and email

If you have any feedback or suggestions about marketing, please feel free to contact us.


Jo Gordon’s story

Jo Gordon has had a love of drawing and painting since she was about six years old. After leaving school, she went to art school to refine her natural talent and gain useful skills and techniques in life drawing.

When Jo’s two children started school at Belair Primary, she secured a position as a school services officer in the library. Soon after she started, the staff realised her artistic ability and before long Jo was responsible for all the displays, backdrops for plays, and decorated blackboards for classrooms.


Jo worked at the school for 32 years and enjoyed her time there very much. During this time, Jo was a member of the Belair Holy Innocents Church and assisted the fellowship with banners and other artistic exploits in the church.

Jo has been part of the Littlehampton community for more than 25 years and feels passionate about the history of the area. In 2009 Jo was commissioned to paint five banners for the 150 year celebration of Littlehampton Bricks.


Now aged 70, and dealing with post-polio syndrome for the past 10 years, Jo still can’t stop painting and giving her time to the community. Although sometimes Jo feels exhausted, she always remains positive and brave and has the courage to go on – just like the Anzacs.

The organisers of the Gunner’s breakfast at the Littlehampton Institute asked Jo to commemorate 100 years of the Anzacs.

The result is this magnificent banner that portrays the story of the Anzacs in Egypt and the landing at Gallipoli. This has been a labour of love that has taken Jo approximately 3 months and some 250+ hours to complete.

At times work has been slow, due to the aches and pains of muscle fatigue from post-polio syndrome and other ailments.
When Jo paints, she loves to listen to loud music to help the artistic flow. She has worked many late nights, and had a few 3 am starts to complete this banner for the community.

During the April school holidays, her grandchildren, Mia (10 years) and Anna (8 years) of Happy Valley, assisted with some of the finishing touches.
Thanks to Jo for sharing her story.

Do you have your own story to share? We would love to hear about your experience and share it with our members. Email your story to and images or post them to us at 302 South Hilton Rd, Hilton 5033.

Reflections from the Australasian-Pacific Post-Polio Conference

20-22 September 2016, Sydney

By Brett Howard, President Polio SA

On Monday 19 September, I flew into Sydney a little apprehensive about what the next three days would bring. The following morning, I walked into the foyer of the Four Seasons Hotel along with 250 delegates, presenters, carers and friends and was immediately put at ease.

We all received our name tags from the registration desk before moving to the business displays, which included orthotic devices, respiration aids and Mt Wilga Private Hospital. The walls were adorned with posters depicting the progress of polio through the ages, artwork with interpretations of disabilities caused by polio, and charts and graphs from some of the presentations to come.

Photo L-R: Jo Gordon, Brett Howard, Margaret Leonello, Ron Blackwell,
Rae Blackwell, Nic Surikov, Michael Evans, Yen Tran.

We were ushered into plenary room for the official welcome and opening at 9 am. Then we went to our selected sessions for an hour before morning tea. Here I will tell you that the food was just great! Every morning tea, afternoon tea and luncheon had a plethora of choices and every break had a different spread. I think I put on two kilograms over the three days.

All presentations received positive feedback and I could give my impressions of the sessions I attended, but all the content from the conference will be available soon on the Polio Australia website:

However, I will tell you about some of the presentations that have left a lasting impression on me.

The first of these was by Gayle Kennedy, an indigenous woman who, at three months, was taken to Sydney for treatment in an iron lung. She was not able to see her parents until they came to pick her up three years later, not realising who those dark-skinned people were. In the 50s indigenous people were not free to travel without permission from the authorities. I still think about this story.

Danica Knezvic’s presentation was an audiovisual representation of her grandmother moving back and forth throughout her house and the tempo and rhythm of those footsteps and shuffles. Danica is now the carer for her grandmother.

Dr Antonio Toniolo told us of his research at the University of Insubria Medical Centre, Varese, Italy. His team have found remnant poliovirus traces in DNA strands in some post-polio survivors. This research shows that these remnants are not transmitted to family members or the community.

Dr Kerry Highley’s closing plenary touched me personally and took me back to when I was going through the original infection and isolation, and included the fear, rejection, denial and anger I felt. I guess I was tired and had listened to much information over the conference, as I was very emotional at the end of her talk.

The conference was a highlight of my life with late effects of polio and I thank the organisers and all the presenters. I am also very happy to think that Polio SA assisted six members to attend.

Brett Howard
Polio SA President